Trusts 101 – A Guide to What They are and How They Work in Australia


With all the talk about Total Super Balance caps and where people will invest money going forward if they can’t get it in to superannuation, the spotlight is being shone on “trusts” at present. This has also brought with it the claims of tax avoidance or tax minimisation, so what exactly are trusts and are there differences between Family Trusts, Units Trusts, Discretionary Trusts and Testamentary Trusts to name a few.

Trusts are a common strategy and this article aims to aid a better understanding of how a trust works, the role and obligations of a trustee, the accounting and income tax implications and some of the advantages and pitfalls. Of course, there is no substitute for specialist legal, tax and accounting advice when a specific trust issue arises and the general information in this article needs to be understood within that context.

Introduction

Trusts are a fundamental element in the planning of business, investment and family financial affairs. There are many examples of how trusts figure in everyday transactions:

  • Cash management trusts and property trusts are used by many people for investment purposes
  • Joint ventures are frequently conducted via unit trusts
  • Money held in accounts for children may involve trust arrangements
  • Superannuation funds are trusts
  • Many businesses are operated through a trust structure
  • Executors of deceased estates act as trustees
  • There are charitable trusts, research trusts and trusts for animal welfare
  • Solicitors, real estate agents and accountants operate trust accounts
  • There are trustees in bankruptcy and trustees for debenture holders
  • Trusts are frequently used in family situations to protect assets and assist in tax planning.

Although trusts are common, they are often poorly understood.

What is a trust?

A frequently held, but erroneous view, is that a trust is a legal entity or person, like a company or an individual. But this is not true and is possibly the most misunderstood aspect of trusts.

A trust is not a separate legal entity. It is essentially a relationship that is recognised and enforced by the courts in the context of their “equitable” jurisdiction. Not all countries recognise the concept of a trust, which is an English invention. While the trust concept can trace its roots back centuries in England, many European countries have no natural concept of a trust, however, as a result of trade with countries which do recognise trusts their legal systems have had to devise ways of recognising them.

The nature of the relationship is critical to an understanding of the trust concept. In English law the common law courts recognised only the legal owner and their property, however, the equity courts were willing to recognise the rights of persons for whose benefit the legal holder may be holding the property.

Put simply, then, a trust is a relationship which exists where A holds property for the benefit of B. A is known as the trustee and is the legal owner of the property which is held on trust for the beneficiary B. The trustee can be an individual, group of individuals or a company. There can be more than one trustee and there can be more than one beneficiary. Where there is only one beneficiary the trustee and beneficiary must be different if the trust is to be valid.

The courts will very strictly enforce the nature of the trustee’s obligations to the beneficiaries so that, while the trustee is the legal owner of the relevant property, the property must be used only for the benefit of the beneficiaries. Trustees have what is known as a fiduciary duty towards beneficiaries and the courts will always enforce this duty rigorously.

The nature of the trustee’s duty is often misunderstood in the context of family trusts where the trustees and beneficiaries are not at arm’s length. For instance, one or more of the parents may be trustees and the children beneficiaries. The children have rights under the trust which can be enforced at law, although it is rare for this to occur.

 

Types of trusts

In general terms the following types of trusts are most frequently encountered in asset protection and investment contexts:

  • Fixed trusts
  • Unit trusts
  • Discretionary trusts – Family Trusts
  • Bare trusts
  • Hybrid trusts
  • Testamentary trusts
  • Superannuation trusts
  • Special Disability Trusts
  • Charitable Trusts
  • Trusts for Accommodation – Life Interests and Rights of Residence

A common issue with all trusts is access to income and capital. Depending on the type of trust that is used, a beneficiary may have different rights to income and capital. In a discretionary trust the rights to income and capital are usually completely at the discretion of the trustee who may decide to give one beneficiary capital and another income. This means that the beneficiary of such a trust cannot simply demand payment of income or capital. In a fixed trust the beneficiary may have fixed rights to income, capital or both.

Fixed trusts

In essence these are trusts where the trustee holds the trust assets for the benefit of specific beneficiaries in certain fixed proportions. In such a case the trustee does not have to exercise a discretion since each beneficiary is automatically entitled to his or her fixed share of the capital and income of the trust.

Unit trusts

These are generally fixed trusts where the beneficiaries and their respective interests are identified by their holding “units” much in the same way as shares are issued to shareholders of a company.

The beneficiaries are usually called unitholders. It is common for property, investment trusts (eg managed funds) and joint ventures to be structured as unit trusts. Beneficiaries can transfer their interests in the trust by transferring their units to a buyer.

There are no limits in terms of trust law on the number of units/unitholders, however, for tax purposes the tax treatment can vary depending on the size and activities of the trust.

Discretionary trusts – Family Trusts

These are often called “family trusts” because they are usually associated with tax planning and asset protection for a family group. In a discretionary trust the beneficiaries do not have any fixed interests in the trust income or its property but the trustee has a discretion to decide whether anyone will receive income and/or capital and, if so, how much.

For the purposes of trust law, a trustee of a discretionary trust could theoretically decide not to distribute any income or capital to a beneficiary, however, there are tax reasons why this course of action is usually not taken.

The attraction of a discretionary trust is that the trustee has greater control and flexibility over the disposition of assets and income since the nature of a beneficiary’s interest is that they only have a right to be considered by the trustee in the exercise of his or her discretion.

Bare trusts

A bare trust exists when there is only one trustee, one legally competent beneficiary, no specified obligations and the beneficiary has complete control of the trustee (or “nominee”). A common example of a bare trust is used within a self-managed fund to hold assets under a limited recourse borrowing arrangement.

Hybrid trusts

These are trusts which have both discretionary and fixed characteristics. The fixed entitlements to capital or income are dealt with via “special units” which the trustee has power to issue.

Testamentary trusts

As the name implies, these are trusts which only take effect upon the death of the testator. Normally, the terms of the trust are set out in the testator’s will and are often used when the testator wishes to provide for their children who have yet to reach adulthood or are handicapped.

Superannuation trusts

All superannuation funds in Australia operate as trusts. This includes self-managed superannuation funds.

The deed (or in some cases, specific acts of Parliament) establishes the basis of calculating each member’s entitlement, while the trustee will usually retain discretion concerning such matters as the fund’s investments and the selection of a death benefit beneficiary.

The Federal Government has legislated to establish certain standards that all complying superannuation funds must meet. For instance, the “preservation” conditions, under which a member’s benefit cannot be paid until a certain qualification has been reached (such as reaching age 65), are a notable example.

Special Disability Trusts

Special Disability Trusts allow a person to plan for the future care and accommodation needs of a loved one with a severe disability. Find out more in this Q & A about Special Disability Trusts.

Charitable Trusts

You may wish to provide long term income benefit to a charity by providing tax free income from your estate, rather than giving an immediate gift. This type of trust is effective if large amounts of money are involved and the purpose of the gift suits a long term benefit e.g. scholarships or medical research.

Trusts for Accommodation – Life Interests and Right of Residence

A Life Interest or Right of Residence can be set up to provide for accommodation for your beneficiary. They are often used so that a family member can have the right to live in the family home for as long as they wish. These trusts can be restrictive so it is particularly important to get professional advice in deciding whether such a trust is right for your situation.

Establishing a trust

Although a trust can be established without a written document, it is preferable to have a formal deed known as a declaration of trust or a deed of settlement. The declaration of trust involves an owner of property declaring themselves as trustee of that property for the benefit of the beneficiaries. The deed of settlement involves an owner of property transferring that property to a third person on condition that they hold the property on trust for the beneficiaries.

The person who transfers the property in a settlement is said to “settle” the property on the trustee and is called the “settlor”.

In practical terms, the original amount used to establish the trust is relatively small, often only $10 or so. More substantial assets or amounts of money are transferred or loaned to the trust after it has been established. The reason for this is to minimise stamp duty which is usually payable on the value of the property initially affected by the establishing deed.

The identity of the settlor is critical from a tax point of view and it should not generally be a person who is able to benefit under the trust, nor be a parent of a young beneficiary. Special rules in the tax law can affect such situations.

Also critical to the efficient operation of a trust is the role of the “appointor”. This role allows the named person or entity to appoint (and usually remove) the trustee, and for that reason, they are seen as the real controller of the trust. This role is generally unnecessary for small superannuation funds (those with fewer than five members) since legislation generally ensures that all members have to be trustees.

The trust fund

In principle, the trust fund can include any property at all – from cash to a huge factory, from shares to one contract, from operating a business to a single debt. Trust deeds usually have wide powers of investment, however, some deeds may prohibit certain forms of investment.

The critical point is that whatever the nature of the underlying assets, the trustee must deal with the assets having regard to the best interests of the beneficiaries. Failure to act in the best interests of the beneficiaries would result in a breach of trust which can give rise to an award of damages against the trustee.

A trustee must keep trust assets separate from the trustee’s own assets.

The trustee’s liabilities

A trustee is personally liable for the debts of the trust as the trust assets and liabilities are legally those of the trustee. For this reason if there are significant liabilities that could arise a limited liability (private) company is often used as trustee.

However, the trustee is entitled to use the trust assets to satisfy those liabilities as the trustee has a right of indemnity and a lien over them for this purpose.

This explains why the balance sheet of a corporate trustee will show the trust liabilities on the credit side and the right of indemnity as a company asset on the debit side. In the case of a discretionary trust it is usually thought that the trust liabilities cannot generally be pursued against the beneficiaries’ personal assets, but this may not be the case with a fixed or unit trust.

Powers and duties of a trustee

A trustee must act in the best interests of beneficiaries and must avoid conflicts of interest. The trustee deed will set out in detail what the trustee can invest in, the businesses the trustee can carry on and so on. The trustee must exercise powers in accordance with the deed and this is why deeds tend to be lengthy and complex so that the trustee has maximum flexibility.

Who can be a trustee?

Any legally competent person, including a company, can act as a trustee. Two or more entities can be trustees of the same trust.

A company can act as trustee (provided that its constitution allows it) and can therefore assist with limited liability, perpetual succession (the company does not “die”) and other advantages. The company’s directors control the activities of the trust. Trustees’ decisions should be the subject of formal minutes, especially in the case of important matters such as beneficiaries’ entitlements under a discretionary trust.

Trust legislation

All states and territories of Australia have their own legislation which provides for the basic powers and responsibilities of trustees. This legislation does not apply to complying superannuation funds (since the Federal legislation overrides state legislation in that area), nor will it apply to any other trust to the extent the trust deed is intended to exclude the operation of that legislation. It will usually apply to bare trusts, for example, since there is no trust deed, and it will apply where a trust deed is silent on specific matters which are relevant to the trust – for example, the legislation will prescribe certain investment powers and limits for the trustee if the deed does not exclude them.

Income tax and capital gains tax issues

Because a trust is not a person, its income is not taxed like that of an individual or company unless it is a corporate, public or trading trusts as defined in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936. In essence the tax treatment of the trust income depends on who is and is not entitled to the income as at midnight on 30 June each year.

If all or part of the trust’s net income for tax purposes is paid or belongs to an ordinary beneficiary, it will be taxed in their hands like any other income. If a beneficiary who is entitled to the net income is under a “legal disability” (such as an infant), the income will be taxed to the trustee at the relevant individual rates.

Income to which no beneficiary is “presently entitled” will generally be taxed at highest marginal tax rate and for this reason it is important to ensure that the relevant decisions are made as soon as possible after 30 June each year and certainly within 2 months of the end of the year. The two month “period of grace” is particularly relevant for trusts which operate businesses as they will not have finalised their accounts by 30 June. In the case of discretionary trusts, if this is done the overall amount of tax can be minimised by allocating income to beneficiaries who pay a relatively low rate of tax.

The concept of “present entitlement” involves the idea that the beneficiary could demand immediate payment of their entitlement.

It is important to note that a company which is a trustee of a trust is not subject to company tax on the trust income it has responsibility for administering.

In relation to capital gains tax (CGT), a trust which holds an asset for at least 12 months is generally eligible for the 50% capital gains tax concession on capital gains that are made. This discount effectively “flows” through to beneficiaries who are individuals. A corporate beneficiary does not get the benefit of the 50% discount. Trusts that are used in a business rather than an investment context may also be entitled to additional tax concessions under the small business CGT concessions.

Since the late 1990s discretionary trusts and small unit trusts have been affected by a number of highly technical measures which affect the treatment of franking credits and tax losses. This is an area where specialist tax advice is essential.

Why a trust and which kind?

Apart from any tax benefits that might be associated with a trust, there are also benefits that can arise from the flexibility that a trust affords in responding to changed circumstances.

A trust can give some protection from creditors and is able to accommodate an employer/employee relationship. In family matters, the flexibility, control and limited liability aspects combined with potential tax savings, make discretionary trusts very popular.

In arm’s length commercial ventures, however, the parties prefer fixed proportions to flexibility and generally opt for a unit trust structure, but the possible loss of limited liability through this structure commonly warrants the use of a corporate entity as unitholder ie a company or a corporate trustee of a discretionary trust.

There are strengths and weaknesses associated with trusts and it is important for clients to understand what they are and how the trust will evolve with changed circumstances.

Trusts which incur losses

One of the most fundamental things to understand about trusts is that losses are “trapped” in the trust. This means that the trust cannot distribute the loss to a beneficiary to use at a personal level. This is an important issue for businesses operated through discretionary or unit trusts.

Establishment procedures

The following procedures apply to a trust established by settlement (the most common form of trust):

  • Decide on Appointors and back-up Appointors as they are the ultimate controllers of the trust. They appoint and change Trustees.
  • Settlor determined to establish a trust (should never be anyone who could become a beneficiary)
  • Select the trustee. If the trustee is a company, form the company.
  • Settlor makes a gift of money or other property to the trustee and executes the trust deed. (Pin $10 to the front of the register is the most common way of doing this)
  • Apply for ABN and TFN to allow you open a trust bank account

Establish books of account and statutory records and comply with relevant stamp duty requirements (Hint: Get your Accountant to do this)

Are you looking for an advisor that will keep you up to date and provide guidance and tips like in this blog? then why now contact me at our Castle Hill or Windsor office in Northwest Sydney to arrange a one on one consultation. Just click the Schedule Now button up on the left to find the appointment options.

Liam Shorte B.Bus SSA™ AFP

Financial Planner & SMSF Specialist Advisor™

SMSF Specialist Adviser 

 Follow SMSFCoach on Twitter Liam Shorte on Linkedin NextGen Wealth on Facebook   

Verante Financial Planning

Tel: 02 98941844, Mobile: 0413 936 299

PO Box 6002 BHBC, Baulkham Hills NSW 2153

5/15 Terminus St. Castle Hill NSW 2154

Corporate Authorised Representative of Magnitude Group Pty Ltd ABN 54 086 266 202, AFSL 221557

This information has been prepared without taking account of your objectives, financial situation or needs. Because of this you should, before acting on this information, consider its appropriateness, having regard to your objectives, financial situation and needs. This website provides an overview or summary only and it should not be considered a comprehensive statement on any matter or relied upon as such.

When your Husband Retires and the Nightmare Comes True


Nightmare for Older Women

I deal with a lot of couples where one spouse has retired well in advance of the other and has established a routine or habits they are comfortable with and enjoy. The working spouse is often totally engrossed in their career or business with little else in the way of interests or hobbies. When they do eventually retire they can not only struggle to make the most of the free time, but they can also destroy the lifestyle their parter has come to enjoy.

This letter printed in Newsweek in 2004 sums it up better than I ever could and should be a warning to you to ensure your spouse or partner regardless of gender, has interests that extend beyond their working life.

THE ‘GOLDEN YEARS’ ARE BEGINNING TO TARNISH

My worst nightmare has become reality. My husband retired. As the CEO of his own software company, he used to make important decisions daily. Now he decides when to take a nap and for how long. He does not play golf, tennis or bridge, which means he is at home for what seems like 48 hours a day. That’s a lot of togetherness.

Much has changed since he stopped working. My husband now defines “sleeping in” as staying in bed until 6 a.m. He often walks in the morning for exercise but says he can’t walk if he gets up late. Late is 5:30. His morning routine is to take out the dog, plug in the coffee and await the morning paper. (And it had better not be late!) When the paper finally arrives, his favorite section is the obits. He reads each and every one–often aloud–and becomes angry if the deceased’s age is not listed. I’d like to work on my crossword puzzle in peace. When I bring this to his attention, he stops briefly–but he soon finds another article that must be shared.

Some retirement couples enjoy this time of life together. Usually these are couples who are not dependent on their spouse for their happiness and well-being. My husband is not one of these individuals. Many wives I’ve spoken to identify with my experience and are happy to know that they’re not alone. One friend told me that when her husband retired, he grew a strip of Velcro on his side and attached himself to her. They were married 43 years and she hinted they may not make it to 44. Another woman said her husband not only takes her to the beauty shop, but goes in with her and waits! Another said her husband follows her everywhere but to the bathroom… and that’s only because she locks the bathroom door.

When I leave the house, my husband asks: “Where are you going?” followed by “When will you be back?” Even when I’m at home he needs to know where I am every moment. “Where’s Jan?” he asks the dog. This is bad enough, but at least he hasn’t Velcroed himself to me–yet.

I often see retired couples shopping together in the grocery store. Usually they are arguing. I hate it when my husband goes shopping with me. He takes charge of the cart and disappears. With my arms full of cans, I have to search the aisles until I locate him and the cart, which is now loaded with strange-smelling cheeses, high-fat snacks and greasy sausages–none of which was on the shopping list.

Putting up with annoying habits is easier when hubby is at work all day and at home only in the evening and on weekends. But little annoying habits become big annoying habits when done on a daily basis. Hearing my husband yell and curse at the TV during the evening news was bad enough when he was working, and it was just once a day. Now he has all day to get riled up watching Fox News. Sometimes leaving the house isn’t even a satisfying reprieve. When I went out of town for a week and put him in charge of the house and animals, I returned to have my parrot greet me with a mouthful of expletives and deep-bellied belches. It wasn’t hard to figure out what had been going on in my absence.

Not that my husband has any problem acting out while I’m around. He recently noticed that our cat had been climbing the palm trees, causing their leaves to bend. His solution? Buy a huge roll of barbed wire and wrap the trunks. After wrapping 10 palms, he looked like he had been in a fight with a tiger and the house took on the appearance of a high-security prison. Neighbors stopped midstride while on their daily walks to stare. I stayed out of sight. In the meantime, the cat learned to negotiate the barbed wire and climbed the palms anyway.

It is now another hot, dry summer, and the leaves on our trees are starting to fall. Yesterday my husband decided to take the dog out for some fresh air. They stood in the driveway while he counted the leaves falling from the ash tree. Aloud. Another meaningful retirement activity.

I think my husband enjoys being at home with me. I am the one with the problem. I am a person who needs a lot of “alone time,” and I get crazy when someone is following me around or wanting to know my every move. My husband is full of questions and comments when I am on the phone, working on my computer or taking time out to read. It is his way of telling me he wants to be included, wanted and needed. I love that he cares–but he still drives me up the wall.

I receive a lot of catalogs. In one there is a pillow advertised that says grow old with me. the best is yet to be. Another catalog has a different pillow. It reads screw the golden years. Right now it’s a tossup as to which pillow will best describe our retirement years together. Just don’t ask me while I’m working on my crossword puzzle.

Zeh lives in Houston.

Do you get the point I am trying to get across? Retirement takes as much planning as working years. You still have to fill all those waking hours previously filled with commuting and work. If you don’t plan ahead and ensure your partner does too then you could end up destroying both of your retirements and often your relationship. It is no surprise that their has been a rise in what is term “grey divorce as couples find themselves with an empty nest and only each other for company. We start planning the transition to retirement with clients 5-10 years out to ensure they have covered off all facets of their retirement needs. That’s what a professional planner covers rather than just an investment advisor.

retirement

For some ideas and a list of organisation for retirees to suit all interests you should visit The Seniors Information Service here . They also have some great ideas on Leisure, Lifestyle and Travel

I hope this guidance has been helpful and please take the time to comment. Feedback always appreciated. Please reblog, retweet, like on Facebook etc to make sure we get the news out there. As always please contact me if you want to look at your own options. We have offices in Castle Hill and Windsor but can meet clients anywhere in Sydney or via Skype.

Liam Shorte B.Bus SSA™ AFP

Financial Planner & SMSF Specialist Advisor™

SMSF Specialist Adviser 

 Follow SMSFCoach on Twitter Liam Shorte on Linkedin NextGen Wealth on Facebook   

Verante Financial Planning

Tel: 02 98941844, Mobile: 0413 936 299

PO Box 6002 BHBC, Baulkham Hills NSW 2153

5/15 Terminus St. Castle Hill NSW 2154

Corporate Authorised Representative of Magnitude Group Pty Ltd ABN 54 086 266 202, AFSL 221557

This information has been prepared without taking account of your objectives, financial situation or needs. Because of this you should, before acting on this information, consider its appropriateness, having regard to your objectives, financial situation and needs. This website provides an overview or summary only and it should not be considered a comprehensive statement on any matter or relied upon as such.

Image courtesy of stockimages at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

ATO Releases 2016/17 Superannuation Thresholds…But?


The thresholds for the 2016/17 year have recently been updated by the ATO. Each year a number of superannuation thresholds are changed to reflect movements in full-time Average Weekly Ordinary Time Earnings (AWOTE). Importantly, for 2016/17 the concessional and non-concessional contribution caps will remain unchanged. Oh but wait there is a caveat! SUBJECT TO NO BUGGERING ABOUT BY THE GOVERNMENT IN THE BUDGET!

ID-100264730

2016/17 Superannuation thresholds Threshold Existing 2015/16 New 2016/17
Standard Concessional contributions cap (per annum) No change $30,000 $30,000
Temporary (higher) concessional contributions cap1 (per annum) for 2016/17, for people age 49 and over on 30 June 2016 – No change $35,000 $35,000
Non-concessional contributions cap – No change

− Standard (per annum)

− Bring forward (over 3 years)

 

$180,000

$540,000

$180,000

$540,000

Co-contributions (per annum)

− Lower income threshold

− Higher income threshold

 

$35,454

$50,454

$36,021

$51,021

Superannuation Guarantee (SG) maximum contribution base (per quarter)

Note: Current 9.5% SG percentage until 30 June 2021

$50,810 $51,620
CGT cap amount (lifetime limit) $1,395,000 $1,415,000
Low rate cap amount – No change

(Applies to the taxable component of taxed super fund benefits for members aged from preservation age to 59)

$195,000 $195,000

 

Threshold (Continued) Existing 2015/16 New 2016/17
Untaxed plan cap amount

(Applies to the taxable component of untaxed super fund benefits)

$1,395,000 $1,415,000
Tax-free part of genuine redundancy and early retirement scheme payments (per payment)

− Base limit

− Plus, for each completed year of service

 

$9,780

$4,891

$9,936

$4,969

Employment termination payment cap (per annum) No change $195,000 $195,000
Minimum annual payments for super income streams No change
Under age 65 4% 4%
Age 65 – 74 5% 5%
Age 75 – 79 6% 6%
Age 80 – 84 7% 7%
Age 85 – 89 9% 9%
Age 90 – 94 11% 11%
Age 95+ 14% 14%

 

Preservation age reminder
Date of birth Preservation age
Before 1 July 1960 55
1 July 1960 – 30 June 1961 56
1 July 1961 – 30 June 1962 57
1 July 1962 – 30 June 1963 58
1 July 1963 – 30 June 1964 59
From 1 July 1964 60

Confused? – Call me or email.

Are you looking for an advisor that will keep you up to date, access to quality professionals and provide guidance and tips like in this blog? Then why now contact me at our Castle Hill or Windsor office in Northwest Sydney to arrange a one on one consultation. Just click the Schedule Now button up on the left to find the appointment options.

Liam Shorte B.Bus SSA™ AFP

Financial Planner & SMSF Specialist Advisor™

SMSF Specialist Adviser 

 Follow SMSFCoach on Twitter Liam Shorte on Linkedin NextGen Wealth on Facebook   

Verante Financial Planning

Tel: 02 98941844, Mobile: 0413 936 299

PO Box 6002 BHBC, Baulkham Hills NSW 2153

5/15 Terminus St. Castle Hill NSW 2154

Corporate Authorised Representative of Magnitude Group Pty Ltd ABN 54 086 266 202, AFSL 221557

This information has been prepared without taking account of your objectives, financial situation or needs. Because of this you should, before acting on this information, consider its appropriateness, having regard to your objectives, financial situation and needs. This website provides an overview or summary only and it should not be considered a comprehensive statement on any matter or relied upon as such.

Image courtesy of Stuart Miles at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

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